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2013年全国硕士研究生入学统一模拟考试(英语),博闻考研
来源:博闻考研 16年专注考研辅导    时间:2016-12-5    编辑:郑老师    已访问:934次 字体大小:【 大 中 小 】

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2013年全国硕士研究生入学统一模拟考试

英    语

(科目代码:201)

                                                                                  
考生注意事项

1. 考生必须严格遵守各项考场规则。
2. 答题前,考生应按准考证上的有关内容填写答题卡上的“考生姓名”、“报考单位”、“考生编号”等信息。
3. 答案必须按要求涂写或填写在指定的答题卡上。
(1)英语知识运用和阅读理解A节、B节的答案用2B铅笔      涂写在答题卡1上。如要改动,必须用橡皮擦干净。
(2)阅读理解C节(英译汉)的答案和作文必须用蓝(黑)色字迹钢笔、圆珠笔或签字笔在答题卡2上。字迹要清楚。
4. 考试结束,将答题卡1、答题卡2及试题一并装入试题袋中交回。
                                                                                  
Section I  Use of English
Direction: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A],[B],[C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
The ability to spot the writer’s purpose is especially useful in reading newspaper headlines because headlines can serve different purposes. A careful reader is always on watch 1 what the headline writer is trying to do.
The first 2 of a headline is to 3 the reader by summing up the story it 4 . Usually this is done with great skill, but sometimes the whole story cannot be 5 in a single phrase or sentence. If there are several 6 , the headline writer must 7 the most important one to write about. The second job of a headline is to get the reader to do something to 8 the paper and read the story. The 9 must therefore catch attention and 10 curiosity. Sometimes this can be done by an 11 twist. The writer’s purpose then is to amuse rather 12 to give information. For example, “A Shortage of Hearts” was the headline for a story about a 13 in heart-transplant operation which left trained staff with 14 to do. “1,000 Watts of Woman Power” headed a story about a new radio station 15 and run by woman.
Creating a headline involves judgment. The writer had to 16 the entire reported situation and 17 what is important. The important thing may not be a single fact, 18 what the fact shows, what it means or what it foretells. The purpose of the headline writer then may be to express is personal feelings or beliefs. But the writer is interested in much more than just personal expression. He wants to persuade the reader to believe something, to accept a 19 of view. To express feelings and beliefs and to 20 the reader, writer may use judgment words. 
 
1. A. over    B. for    C. with    D. in
2. A. notion    B. purpose    C. proof    D. reference
3. A. inform    B. reveal    C. spot    D. urge
4. A. secures    B. tackles    C. consists    D. covers
5. A. stated    B. transferred    C. verified    D. withdraws
6. A. scales    B. proportions    C. angles    D. regions
7. A. state    B. select    C. contrast    D. widen
8. A. attend    B. inventm    C. buy    D. consist
9. A. newspaper    B. article    C. story    D. headline
10. A. rise    B. raise    C. arise    D. arouse
11. A. annoying    B. amusing    C. anxious    D. amazing
12. A. too    B. that    C. than    D. not
13. A. performance    B. temptation    C. refusal    D. decline
14. A. something    B. none    C. little    D. few
15. A. set about    B. set off    C. set up    D. set back
16. A. sketch out    B. size up    C. pick over    D. head off
17. A. serve    B. judge    C. illustrate    D. motivate
18. A. but    B. and    C. as    D. or
19. A. point    B. flock    C. bundle    D. sort
20. A. persuade    B. inform    C. catch    D. operate

Section II Reading Comprehension
Part A:
Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points ). 
Text1
A newcomer to this country reading the mainstream press and watching television in this election year, would easily discern one of the issues of greatest concern to voters: George W. Bush’s position on the death penalty. What the newcomer would not learn is that, in fact, the question of Bush’s support for death penalty—or for that matter, the question of the death penalty itself—was not of the slightest interest to the great majority of voters. Support for the death penalty is consistent and relatively stable; although it has declined somewhat during recent months of heavy anti-death penalty news coverage, it still is above 60 percent in every public opinion poll. What is more, the death penalty is simply not of voting concern to almost everybody. A look through 16 recent national polls questioning adults as to the most important issues facing the nation finds the death penalty unmentioned. The voters know that the president has almost nothing to do with capital punishment, and that, in this election anyway, there isn’t a dime’s worth of difference between the two major candidates on the issue.

All of this illustrates a curious thing that has happened to presidential elections—the rise of the media as a major force, perhaps the major force, in defining what are and what are not issues. With the passing of party bosses and a long run of public complacency, the press has been able to fill a vacuum, and has established itself in presidential years as not only the Great Mentioner but the Great Decider. In their secret hearts, most journalists feel this is not a bad thing at all. For the good of the nation, someone has to decide, and who better than the disinterested guardians of a free society—us?
But there are several problems here. One is that, as surveys show, the media are far more homogenous than the general population in their views, and these views are far more liberal. Another is that the media’s role in choosing and framing issues conflicts with their role in objectively informing the public. The invention of the Bush death penalty issue is typical of the media’s habit of creating issues that skew coverage to (a) advance liberal causes and/or (b) favor the Democrat and disfavor the Republican.
Journalists like to think that they think (and write) without bias. But everyone else knows that this is absurd. What journalists choose and how journalists frame inescapably arises out of what journalists believe. And, as a group, journalists believe in liberalism and in electing Democrats. Consider two election-year cases, George Bush’s visit to Bob Jones University and Al Gore’s visit with Al Sharpton.The first was deemed a big issue, with 884 Nexis hits to date, and the tone of coverage overwhelmingly critical of Bush. The second was deemed much less an issue—only 323 hits and relatively little criticism.Who decided one mattered a lot and the other not so much?Just we few, our little objective unbiased selves, bringing you the issue that are fit to print.

21. Which of the following is true according to the first paragraph?
[A] The public didn’t care a dime about death penalty.
[B] The death penalty was not support to be an issue that mattered in the election.
[C] Bush’s position on the death penalty was what won him substantial support.
[D] Gore’s position on the death penalty was more appealing than Bush’s.
22. The fact that the issue of death penalty was much in the media indicates.
[A] the importance of the issue in presidential election in the US.
[B] the increasing power of the media to manipulate the situation.
[C] the positive role of the mainstream press on the public.
[D] Bush’s ability to identify the issue of greatest concern to voters.
 23. The “disinterested guardians of a free society” (in the second paragraph)
[A] is a satirical reference to journalists.
[B] refer to the two major candidates in the election.
[C] the Great Deciders in national affairs.
[D] the bosses of the two major parties in the US.
 24. The invention of the Bush death penalty issue shows
[A] the media are a major contender for liberty and democracy.
[B] the presidential election is full of corruption and manipulation.
[C] Bush is on better terms with the journalists than his rival.
[D] the media are not so objective as they claim they are.
 25. The two cases mentioned in the last paragraph explain
[A] why the public take the presidential election as an absurd business.
[B] why Gore was so unpopular with the American people.
[C] how wrong Gore’s campaigning strategies were.
[D] how biased the media are in covering current events.

Text 2
The government’s new cyber-security officials yesterday asked telecommunications companies for help in building a government computer network that would have “no risk of outside penetration”—a task some computer security consultants say is nearly impossible. Plans for the private network, called Govnet, hinge on whether a reliable network infrastructure can be built at an affordable price, officials said. Computer System consultants said they could not estimate how much the network would cost because of the government’s enormous size and security needs. Richard Clarke, who was appointed special adviser to the president for cyberspace security this week, said he believes a more reliable system can be built. Ninety percent of available fiber-optic space is unused and fairly inexpensive to obtain, he said .

    Govnet is part of a plan Clarke announced earlier this week “to secure our cyberspace from a range of possible threats, from hackers to criminals, to terrorist groups, to foreign nations, which might use cyber-war against us in the future, Govnet would be completely independent from the Internet to help keep out hackers and viruses”, according to the government’s plan. The request from the General Services Administration asks that telecommunications companies submit proposals about how the network could be built, how much it would cost, and how long it would take to construct.

    This year, the current network has been breached by hackers, computer worm and viruses. The System was also roughed up by the “Code Red” computer worm and an attack program called “I love you”. The viruses affected thousands of government computers. Last year a report by the General Accounting Office, an internal government watchdog, found weaknesses in the computer network that could allow terrorists or hackers to “severely damage or disrupt national defense or vital public operations or steal-sensitive data”. Clarke said the government’s current virtual private network is vulnerable to viruses and denial of service attacks that Govnet would make more difficult to execute.

    An internal network, such as the Govnet proposal, is worth investigating but will probably fail to sophisticated hackers, said Amit Yoran, chief executive of the security-services company Riptech Inc. And a former information-security program director at the Defense Department. “It is probably more feasible to implement and strongly enforce global security postures and practices rather than go out and purchase new assets,” Yoran said. “Once someone is able to get in, they will find a weak link. When you have a network, the size of the government, there will be weak links. Someone will get in.”

26. What is the Govnet?
[A] a reliable network infrastructure that can be built at an affordable price.
[B] a government computer network that may prove immune to penetration.
[C] a national security system to be developed against outside invasion.
[D] a private national security system to be developed against outside invasion.
27. It is implied that some computer consultants consider Govnet to be almost impossible because.
[A] it will entail considerable cost
[B] there isn’t a reliable network infrastructure yet.
[C] it will be difficult for Govnet to fit into the Internet
[D] no telecommunications company can afford it
28. How will Govnet achieve its intended goal of enhancing the security of the government network?
[A] by stepping up its virus-killing software.
[B] by scanning for viruses and attacks constantly.
[C] by secluding itself from the internet.
[D] by establishing an internal watchdog committee.
29. What Amir Yoran said amounts to denying?
[A] the feasibility of building a security program
[B] the efficiency of the present network in countering outside attacks
[C] the conceived security of Govnet
[D] the possibility of enhancing the security of the government network.
30. The initiative for constructing an internal network stems from
[A] the vulnerability of the present network to outside attacks.
[B] the improvement in network security technology.
[C] the desire to build a stronger national defense system.
[D] the proposals submitted by telecommunications companies.

Text 3
    To survive, psychologically as well as physically, human beings must inhabit a world that is relatively free of ambiguity and reasonably predictable. Some sort of structure must be placed upon the endless profusion of incoming signals. The infant, born into a world of flashing, hissing, moving images, soon learns to adapt by resolving this chaos into toys and tables, dogs and parents. Even adults who have had their vision or hearing restored through surgery describe the world as a frightening and sometimes unbearable experience; only after days of effort are they able to transform blurs and noises into meaningful and therefore manageable experiences.

    It is commonplace to talk as if the world “has” meaning, to ask what “is” the meaning of a phrase, a gesture, a painting, a contract. Yet when thought about, it is clear that events are devoid of meaning until someone assigns it to them. There is no appropriate response to a bow or a handshake, a shout or a whisper, until it is interpreted. A drop of water and the color red have no meaning, they simply exist. The aim of human perception is to make the world intelligible so that it can be managed successfully; the attribution of meaning is a prerequisite to and preparation for action.
People are never passive receivers, merely absorbing events of obvious significance, but are active in assigning meaning to sensation. What any event acquires in the way of meaning appears to reflect a transaction between what is there to be seen or heard, and what the interpreter brings to it in the way of past experience and prevailing motive. Thus the attribution of meaning is always a creative process by which the raw data of sensation are transformed to fit the aims of the observer.

    The diversity of reactions that can be triggered by a single experience—meeting a stranger, negotiating a contract, attending a textile conference—is immense. Each observer is forced to see it through his own eyes, interpret it in the light of his own values, fit it to the requirements of his own circumstances. As a consequence, every object and message is seen by every observer from a somewhat different perspective. Each person will note some features and neglect others. Each will accept some relations among the facts and deny others. Each will arrive at some conclusion, tentative or certain, as the sounds and forms resolve into a “temple” or “barn”, a “compliment” or “insult”.
31. It can be inferred from the first two paragraphs that
[A] the world is bewildering to the infant and adult alike.
[B] surgery will restore a meaningful world to those who undertake it.
[C] any response to the world would be impossible if meaning were not first assigned to it.
[D] the world will be devoid of meaning if people fail to understand the special incoming signals
32. In order to assign meaning to anything in the world, one needs to
[A] have a full knowledge of the structure of the world.
[B] transform the incoming signals, with the help of previous experience, so that they can serve one’s own purpose.
[C] differentiate incoming signals that are of significance and those that are not.
[D] be endowed with creativeness.
33. The word “triggered” (Para. 4) is closest in meaning to
[A] only visual images can be assigned meaning.
[B] incoming signals exist for the purpose of conveying meaning to people.
[C] an individual might have to adapt to the diversified experience in this world.
[D] people may have different response to the same incoming signal.
35. The author’s main purpose in writing this article is to
[A] illustrate the different perspectives to interpret one’s personal experience.
[B] show that meaning is but a subjective matter.
[C] demonstrate how we can assign meaning to the world.
[D] argue that one needs to have some insight to understand the world.

Text 4
     Wile claims on labels of worthless medicines are much less frequent than there were years ago. But some over-the-counter drugs are still being promoted by tall stories, sometimes told in booklets or through advertising rather than on the label.
One tall story is that every American today suffers from a vitamin or mineral deficiency and needs vitamin supplements. This isn’t so. Vitamins and minerals are plentiful in our food supply. Eating a variety of foods makes it almost certain that you will get a full amount of these nutrients.

    Infants, pregnant women, the sick and those who are dieting may need special supplements. But the family physician is the best authority on what vitamin supplements are needed.

    If your doctor does recommend supplements, take the suggested dose—no more. Some people take or give vitamins on the principle that if a little is good, twice as much is better. Excessive doses of certain vitamins are known to be poisonous.
If you are overweight, don’t fail for a formula that promises you a slim, trim figure without dieting or calorie counting. To reduce, you must consume fewer calories than you use up in daily living.

    The energy-producing or heat-producing value of food is measured in calories. One calorie is the amount of heat required to raise to temperature of one kilogram of water one degree centigrade. If calories are not used in producing heat or energy, they build fat.

    If you need to lose only a few pounds, you can probably work out your own diet. But if you need to lose many pounds, have your doctor plan a diet for you. Crash diets can break down your health, not your weight.

    Beware of cosmetics that make exaggerated claims or promises. There are no quick or easy cures for spots on the face caused by a combination of factors. No cream that comes in a jar can cure them.

    Don’t trust any cream or gadget (small device) that promises to give you curves where you want them, or take them from where they are not wanted. Any cream that could do this would not be safe to use and there are no gadgets that are effective for spot reducing.
The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act protects the consumer by prohibiting any statements on labels or packages that are false or misleading.

36. The author reveals at the beginning of the article that
[A] more often than not, all over-the-counter drugs were worthless years ago.
[B] false accounts of useless medicines are shifting from labels to advertising brochures.
[C] valueless drugs are still being widely spread by lengthy tales through advertising.
[D] imaginary stories about worthless drugs are frequently related in advertisements.
37. It is implied in the first case in this article that
[A] many people take unnecessary drugs.
[B] most people do not take the right kinds of vitamins.
[C] some people take excessive doses of vitamins for believing some advertisements.
[D] few people trust in over-the-counter drugs after seeing some advertisements.
38. In this article the author defends
[A] the high cost of prescription drugs.
[B] the quality of television advertising.
[C] the safety of the over-the-counter drugs.
[D] the vitamin content of American food.
39. According to the article, which of the following is irrelevant?
[A] Worthless drugs used to be promoted on the label.
[B] Vitamin supplements are needed by elderly people.
[C] There is nothing that can cure skin spots easily.
[D] A person who wishes to lose weight must eat less.
40 Which of the following best expresses the main idea of this article?
[A] Dieting will ensure good health.
[B] Beware of misleading advertising.
[C] Drastic action should be taken against worthless medicines.
[D] There is no need for Americans to supplement vitamins.

Part B:
Directions: The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41--45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A--E to fill in each numbered box. The first and the last paragraphs have been placed for you in Boxes. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
[A] So what do Americans think of the foreign visitors who arrive for the torrid heat, just when locals from the United States tend to avoid Death Valley? Says park ranger Brenda Henson, “The foreigners want to experience the heat in Death Valley. They think this is neat. I think it’s crazy.”
[B] The place that the tourists—mainly from Europe—are drawn to is an actually serise of salt flats 225 km long and 6 km to 26 km wide. The searing heat of the sunis reflected up from this dry and waterless terrain, and the only noise that breaks the silence in this vast valley is the crunch of visitors’ shows on the fine salt crystals left by evaporation. Birds and animals are largely absent, and only the hardest plantshave any chance of existence in this unforgiving landscape.
[C] According to park rangers, an average of 1.3 million visitors enter the park each year. From June through Auguest, 90 per cent of them are foreigners, there to experience the blistering heat that gives Death Valley its name. Art Horton, meteorologist from the National Weather Service, says the average high in July is 46.2 degree C and the low 30 degree C. For Auguest, the average high in July is 45.2 degree C and the low 29.4 degree C.
[D] All around, mountains tower above the salt flats. Across the flats, visitors can see Telescope Peak, the highest point in the park at more than 3,350 m. Normally snow covered in winter, the mountain range is bare in summer, but at the edges of the Valley offers some shade from the blistering sun
[E] Even Death Valley’s hot news weather can have extremes above that. The hottest days ever recorded were on June 30, 1994, and July 14, 1972 when temperatures hit 53.3 degree C. And in winter, Death Valley continues to live up to its name, producing coldness at the other end of the scale that can be life-threatening to anyone caught exposed in it. The coldest day recorded in Death Valley was on January 30, 1988 when it was 18 degree C below zero.
[F] One tourist from Paris sums up the attraction very simply: “We come here because we can tell all of our frients and family that we’ve been to the hottest place in the world,” he says.
[G] Death Valley is the lowest, hottest, driest area in North America. The climate in this California National Park has less than 5 cm of rainfall a year and temperatures up to 53 degree C in summer. That’s enough to keep sensible Americans away during the hottest months from June to Auguest. But it’s then that the sizzling temperatures and stifling heat draw their most avid fans, the foreigh tourists. From all over the globe, they descend to the valley floor in rental cars, carrying maps and water bottles, and vigorously fanning themselves with newspapers to keep cool.
Order:
G  → 41     → 42     → 43     → 44     → 45     → F

Part C
Directions:
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)
  Attempts to understand the mind and its operation go back at least to the Ancient Greeks, when philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle tried to explain the nature of human knowledge. (46) The study of mind remained the province of philosophy until the nineteenth century, when experimental psychology developed and when Wilhelm Wundt and his students initiated laboratory methods for studying mental operations more systematically. Within a few decades, however, experimental psychology became dominated by behaviorism, view that virtually denied the existence of mind. According to behaviorists such as J.B. Watson, psychology should restrict itself to examining the relation between observable stimuli and observable behavioral responses. Talk of consciousness and mental representations was banished from respectable scientific discussion. Especially in North America, behaviorism dominated the psychological scene through the 1950s. Around 1956, the intellectual landscape began to change dramatically. George Miller summarized numerous studies which showed that the capacity of human thinking is limited, with short-term memory, for example, limited to around seven items, (47) He proposed that memory limitations can be overcome by recoding information into chunks, mental representations that require mental procedures for encoding and decoding the information. At this time, primitive computers had been around for only a few years, but pioneers such as John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Allen Newell, and Herbert Simon were founding the field of artificial intelligence. (48) In addition, Noam Chomsky rejected behaviorist assumptions about language as a learned habit and proposed instead to explain language comprehension in terms of mental grammars consisting of rules. The six thinkers mentioned in this paragraph can be viewed as the founders of cognitive science.

   Cognitive science has unifying theoretical ideas, but we have to appreciate the diversity of outlooks and methods that researchers in different fields bring to the study of mind and intelligence. Although cognitive psychologists today often engage in theorizing and computational modeling, their primary method is experimentation with human participants. (49) People, usually undergraduates satisfying course requirements, are brought into the laboratory so that different kinds of thinking can be studied under controlled conditions. (50) Our conclusions about how the mind works must be based on more than “common sense” and introspection, since these can give a misleading picture of mental operations, many of which are not consciously accessible. Psychological experiments that carefully approach mental operations from diverse directions are therefore crucial for cognitive science to be scientific.

Section III  Writing
Part A:
Direction: You are asked to write a inquiry letter of Web-page making and publishing to net service company. You are given the outline in Chinese below:
  1. 委托某网络公司为你的企业建立网上主页
  2. 请该公司提供服务内容、完成时间、费用等
  3. 盼回复
You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Li Ming”instead. You do not need to write the address. (10 points)

Part B
Directions: Study the following drawing carefully and write an essay in which you should
1) describe the drawing briefly,
2) explain its intended meaning, and
3) give your comment.
You should write 160--200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points)
 


 

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博闻考研辅导,18年专注考研培训,18年来百万考研学子正确选择了博闻考研,连续18年考研通过率达96%,考研辅导热线400-0500-829,18年来有115万考生成功踏上人生的辉煌之路。